The Lobster product comes from two main models of production: wild lobster (marine and freshwater) catching and aquaculture cultivation harvesting. At the moment, lobster products are important in the global economy and food security.
Currently, the farming of lobsters in cages in Indonesia has good potential to develop using small-scale farming units, where many coastal lagoons can support the variety of cage designs used. The lobster aquaculture has been developed in Indonesia but there are some problems with still high cannibalism during the puerulus phase of lobster.
In the future, the challenging of lobster cage design is to develop lobster cage that able to decrease number of cannibalism in lobster cultivation. Besides, selection of the farming of lobster location must be quite far from the shipping lanes and other structure in ocean. For example, lobster farming cannot be installed in the Madura Strait because Madura Strait is one of the busiest shipping lanes in Indonesia and many subsea pipelines have been installed in there.
Total lobster production in 2008, aquaculture supplied 3%; however, by 2009 aquaculture supplied over 5%. The lobster production in Indonesia is dominated by catching lobster from ocean. To control the catching of lobster in the Indonesia Ocean, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries has established new minimum size limits for lobsters by catching method (Permen KP2/2015, which reinforced the1980 Presidential Decree).
Indonesia’s statistics in 2012 reveal that lobsters rank fourth among the highest export of crustacean commodities after Paneus Shrimp, Metapenaeus and Macrobrachium family. Based on FAO data in 2005, the lobster demand in Japan has been increased annually since 1980.
Increasing market demand, both domestic and internationally, has encouraged lobster catching to increase. This will potentially endanger the sustainability of the lobster resources in Indonesia if not managed properly. With the transition to green economy, the lobster production must be managed through environmentally friendly production and more sustainable processing methods. It is therefore important to raise awareness and incentives for economic executants to be sustainable.
One of the efforts to maintain sustainability of the lobster production is performed by cultivating lobster using cage or commonly called aquaculture. Development can be very profitable especially if it is operated by traditional fishermen who live in coastal areas. This research is to propose lobster aquaculture with adapting lobster habitat in its nature. The lobster which is selected and developed in this research is Panulirus longipes, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus.
These lobsters only live in waters with the surface of current velocities between 20-40 cm/sec. This indicates that those lobsters are live in calm water areas which are suitable for bamboo, because it has buoyancy to float on water naturally.